Regional variation in Medicare spending is striking. Among the 306 hospital referral regions in the United States, price-adjusted Medicare reimbursements varied twofold in 2012, from about $6,700 per enrollee in the lowest spending region to more than $13,000 in the highest spending region. From 1992 to 2006, total Medicare spending grew at an average rate of 3.5% per year, but this growth was not also spread evenly across regions. These findings have important implications for health policy and the goal of achieving sustainable and affordable health care for all Americans.
Dartmouth Atlas Medicare reimbursement rates are calculated from Medicare claims files from CMS. Fee-for-service patients enrolled in Medicare Parts A and B are included. Patients enrolled in risk-bearing health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are excluded from our analyses. Health maintenance organizations receive capitated payments from Medicare – a fixed annual amount per enrollee – in exchange for which the HMO must provide all required services. Since HMOs do not submit individual claims to Medicare, we must exclude members of HMOs from our claims analyses.
The rates are adjusted for the age, sex and race of the underlying Medicare population using the indirect method. They are also adjusted for regional differences in prices. While price differences explain some of the regional variation in Medicare spending, our studies suggest that utilization – the volume of services delivered – is a far more important driver of Medicare regional payment variation than price differences.